Civil Engineering

Ultimate Guide Civil Engineering: Disciplines, Degree, Eligibility, Exams, Career Option, Top Colleges & Companies

Civil Engineering is a profession that has several sub-categories under it and refers to not a single field, but a vast collection of professions. It includes technical specialties, including designing, planning, and supervising the construction of different facilities. These facilities range from offshore structures, bridges, buildings, tunnels, highways, transit systems, dams, and much more.

Civil Engineering refers to applying physical and scientific principles to solve the problems of society. It comes as no surprise then that the history of Civil Engineering involves advancement in understanding Physics and Mathematics. Traditionally civil engineers were defined as people who had obtained knowledge of structures, soils, geography, mechanics, environment, material science, and hydrology. Know-hows of all these subjects are required in construction. In ancient and medieval history, construction and architectural design were done by artisans, carpenters, and master builders.

The earliest practice of civil engineering dates back to as far as  4000 and 2000 BC. In the early human civilizations found in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley, the first evidence of civil engineering is found. There was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture until modern times. The term engineer and architect were often used interchangeably. Some of the first instances of large structure constructions include Pyramids of Egypt and the Great Wall of China. 

Civil Engineering has a long and rich history of its origin. Today civil engineering is not only a well-recognized profession but is popular amongst the youth. With the broad options that it provides to all the candidates, Civil Engineering presents itself as a great course to study. A civil engineer must have an academic degree either in Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) or Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.).

Civil Engineering Disciplines

Civil Engineering in itself is divided into many types or categories. They are as follows :

  • Construction Engineering
  • Transportation Engineering
  • Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Water Resources Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Coastal Engineering
  • Forensic Engineering
  • Earthquake Engineering
  • Municipal or Urban Engineering
  • Materials Science and Engineering
  • Bridge Engineering
  • Fire Protection Engineering
  • Irrigation Engineering

Degrees in Civil Engineering

A candidate must have a basic undergraduate degree in Civil Engineering known as Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) or Bachelor of Technology, to pursue Civil Engineering: 

Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.)

B.E. Civil Engineering is a four-year-long integrated undergraduate course in Civil Engineering. The four-year-long course is usually divided into eight semesters. It is to be noted that B.E. is a more theoretical course as compared to B.Tech.

Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech)

Like B.E., this is a four-year course which is divided into eight semesters. It is a more skill-based and practical course than B.E. 

Types of Engineering Programs

There are two types of engineering programs:

  • 3-year B.E./B.Tech course after Diploma in Engineering.
  • 4-year B.E./B.Tech course after class 12

A candidate may choose the course according to their preference. A Diploma in Civil Engineering is a three-year-long course. It is to be noted that eligibility for Diploma is that the candidate should have scored a minimum of 50% marks in class 10 board examinations.

Eligibility for Civil Engineering (B.E./B.Tech.)

A candidate aspiring to be a civil engineer needs to have an undergraduate degree in Civil Engineering – either in B.E. or B.Tech. The eligibility criteria for these degrees are –

  • The candidate should have passed the 10+2 board examination.
  • Physics, Chemistry, and Maths should have been the compulsory subjects of the candidate.

Exam for Civil Engineering –

Most colleges, institutes give admission to candidates into their Civil Engineering courses based on the marks the candidate scored in the National or State-level entrance exams for Civil Engineering. Some of these are as follows –


Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) is a nationwide entrance examination for B.E./B.Tech, B.Arch, and B.Plan courses. It is a three-hour-long Computer-Based Exam (CBT). This year it is to be conducted between 18 July – 23 July 2020.


Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is a nationwide exam for students pursuing their post-graduation in many courses, including Masters of Engineering and Masters in Technology. GATE 2020 was held on 1, 2, 8, and 9 February.


BITSAT is an online exam conducted by Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) for admission into the Bachelors and Master Courses in Civil Engineering offered by the BITS in Goa, Hyderabad, and Pilani. BITSAT 2020 is scheduled for May 24, 2020.


Karnataka Common Entrance Test is an offline exam for all the universities and institutes in the Karnataka state. The scores of this exam grant a candidate admission into their desired Bachelor course, including Civil Engineering. 30 July and 31 July are the exam dates for KCET 2020.


Maharashtra Common Entrance Test is an online state-level test. It is conducted by the state of Maharashtra. Like KCET, MHT CET scores grant admission to many Bachelor Courses within Maharashtra.

Top Colleges/Universities for Civil Engineering

The top colleges or Institutes for studying Civil Engineering:

  •  IIT, Bombay
  •  IIT, Delhi
  •  IIT, Kanpur
  •  IIT, Kharagpur
  •  IIT, Madras
  •  IIT, Roorkee
  •  BITS Pilani
  •  IIT BHU Varanasi
  •  IIT Guwahati
  •  NIT Trichy
  •  Delhi Technological University
  •  NIT Warangal
  •  NIT Surathkal
  •  Birla Institute of Technology
  •  Jadavpur University Faculty Council of Engineering & Technology
  •  MNNIT Allahabad
  •  PSG College of Technology Coimbatore
  •  PEC University of Technology Chandigarh
  •  IIEST Shibpur
  •  MNIT Jaipur

Job/Career Option of a Civil Engineer

Some of the jobs a civil engineer could do are as follows:

Position Salary Package
Structural Engineers 4-5 Lakh p.a.
Geotechnical Engineers 3-4 Lakh p.a.
Site Engineers 2.5-3 Lakh p.a.
Construction Engineers 3.5-4 Lakh p.a.
Lecturers / Professors 3.5-4 Lakh p.a.

Other job options include are as follows:

  • Engineering Project Managers
  • Senior Civil Engineer
  • Civil Engineering Drafter 
  • Civil Engineering Technologist
  • Civil Engineering Technician
  • Land Surveyor 
  • Nuclear Engineer
  • Water Engineer
  • Design engineer
  • Estimator
  • Contracting Civil Engineer
  • Consulting Civil Engineer
  • Building services engineer
  •  Fire Risk Assessor
  •  Engineering Geologist
  •  Urban Designer
  •  Geotechnical Engineer
  •  Sustainability Consultant 

Top Recruiting Companies for Civil Engineers –

Some of the top recruiters of Civil Engineers are as follows :

  • L&T (Larsen & Toubro)
  • Maytas Infra Ltd
  • TATA Consulting Engineers Ltd
  • Land Transport Authority
  • Schlumberger
  • Jacobs Engineering
  • Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd
  • Shapoorji Pallonji
  • Jones Lang LaSalle
  • Hindustan Construction Company
  • DLF
  • Unitech
  • Gammon India
  • Skyline Builders
  • MARG Limited

These are some of the best recruiters of a civil engineer. A candidate should keep them in mind while reviewing packages offered by different companies.

FAQs about Civil Engineering

Q1) What are some good institutions for Civil Engineering?

Answer – IIT Delhi, Bombay, Kanpur, Madras, and Roorkee are some great institutions to study Civil Engineering.

Q2) What is the difference between B.E. and B.Tech?

Answer – B.E. and B.Tech are both undergraduate programs in Civil Engineering. However, B.E. is a more theoretical course as compared to B.Tech which is a more skill-oriented course.

Q3) What are some top recruiting companies for a Civil Engineer?

Answer –  L&T (Larsen & Toubro), Maytas Infra Ltd, TATA Consulting Engineers Ltd, and Land Transport Authority are some of the top recruiting companies for a civil engineer.

Q4) How do I apply for admission into B.E./B.Tech course of IITs?

Answer – To apply for admission into IITs, a candidate must have appeared in national-level entrance exams like JEE Mains or JEE Advanced.

Q5) What are the eligibility criteria for B.E./B.Tech?

Answer – To pursue the B.E./B.Tech program, a candidate must have passed 10+2 examinations. Physics, Mathematics, and Chemistry being compulsory subjects.

Written by
Aditi Shukla
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